Table of Contents
Biometrics is a scientific and technological authentication method based on biology and used in data assurance.
Biometrics refers to human statistics. Biometrics identification is a widely used identification method in computer science.
It is used to monitor a person. Biometric identifiers identify a person by looking at certain physical characteristics.
These physical characteristics are – palm veins, fingerprints, palm print, DNA, face, iris or eyes, smell, walking pattern, different body parts, retina, geometric shape of hands and many more.
So let’s know from below what is biometric, how many types and what is it, where is it used, its advantages and disadvantages in detail.
What is biometrics?
Biometrics is a technology where a person is uniquely identified based on their physical and behavioral characteristics.
Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of a person’s physical behavioral characteristics. Using this technology it is possible to identify people and give them various permissions.
Using this technology, computers can detect human behavioral characteristics and physical structure. Can allow various tasks to be done after the computer is detected.
In a word, biometrics is a method of identifying people using unaltered physical or behavioral characteristics.
For example – hand, mouth, feet, eyes, ears, teeth, voice, signature, finger, movement etc. are included in the features. However, in most cases fingerprints, eyes and facial expressions are analysed.
In simple terms, biometrics is a technology through which computers can easily recognize or recognize the physical and behavioral characteristics of people.
What is the function of biometrics?
Biometric devices convert a person’s personal characteristics into digital codes and match those codes with codes stored in a computer.
When the user’s personal codes match the codes stored in the computer, the person can be identified.
What does the term biometric mean?
The word bio means life, life etc. And the word metric means the parameter by which the performance characteristics of something can be distinguished from others.
So, the word biometric means – distinguishing or identifying an animal or organism from others by its characteristics.
Who is the origin of biometrics? Who invented fingerprints?
Bangladesh’s Azizul Haque and England’s Sir Hemchandra Bose started research from 1880 and discovered hand fingerprints in 1892.
There are many people in the world whose fingerprints will never match. So it is possible to identify people easily through this.
What are the types of biometrics?
Biometric methods based on body structure and behavioral characteristics are of 2 types. namely-
Body composition characteristics method
Behavioral characterization method
Body structure characteristics methods are:
1. Analyzing facial features.
2. Analyzing fingers through fingerprints.
3. Analyzing the color surrounding the eyeball.
4. Analyzing the vein pattern of hands and neck.
5. Analyzing hand structure and finger length measurements.
Behavioral characterization methods are:
1. Analyzing voice.
2. Any password or typing key entry is recorded or analyzed.
3. Analyzing handwriting.
Advantages of Biometrics
Biometrics are always with people and cannot be lost or forgotten.
Spoof proof Biometrics are much harder to fake or steal.
Biometrics provide answers to what a person has and help verify identity.
Non-transferable Each of us has access to a different set of biometrics.
User experience is convenient and fast.
Healthcare – used in systems like the National Identity Card of the health insurance program. Fingerprints are used for identification.
Airport Security – Airports use biometrics such as iris recognition. Moreover, using “e-passport” requires biometrics.
Law enforcement – used in the system for criminal IDs. Eg – fingerprint or palm print authentication system.
US Department of Homeland Security – It is used by the Border Patrol branch for many identification, certification and verification processes.
SIM Registration – Fingerprint is used during SIM registration with Bangladesh National Identity Card.
Disadvantages of biometrics
Biometric data can now be hacked.
Security requires significant investment in biometrics.
Machine learning and algorithms need to be improved to reduce biometric demographic bias.
False acceptance and false rejection can still occur which prevent selected users from accessing the system.
Biometric devices limit privacy for users of facial recognition systems.
Application Areas of Biometrics
In Smartphones – Nowadays almost all of us use biometrics fingerprint for security in smartphones.
Elements of Biometrics
Biometrics is a method of identifying a person as unique based on a person’s body parts or behavioral characteristics.
In biometrics, when the data codes stored in the computer itself match the codes provided by the person, the person gains access.
The components of biometrics are –
Fingerprint: Fingerprints of human hands are converted into digital data by computer with the help of fingerprint reader. If it matches the data stored in the computer, the person is identified or gets access.
DNA Test: A human DNA finger is created by taking DNA from human soil. Sometimes organs like hair are also used here.
Handwriting Verification: The person is identified by checking the handwriting, writing style or speed, pen pressure etc.
Voice Recognition: After storing the voice recognition in the database, the voice recognition is accessed if it matches the user’s voicer.
Face Recognition: Human face shape is detected by computer. The person is identified by comparing the distance between the two eyes, the length and diameter of the nose, etc.
Hand geometry: Every person’s hand is different, so computers can recognize people by following this hand pattern.
Iris: Iris is currently the ideal organ for biometrics to identify people. One person’s iris or eye is always different from another person’s eye. So if you stand still in front of the computer, you can identify it.
Keystroke Verification: It is possible to identify the person by analyzing his typing speed, typing pattern and typing rhythm etc.