2 Propanol: The Comprehensive Guide

Introduction to 2 Propanol

2 Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol, is a colorless and flammable liquid with a strong odor. It is one of the most commonly used solvents globally and finds extensive applications in various industries due to its versatile properties.

2 Propanol definition

2 Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol, is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H8O. It is a secondary alcohol, meaning that the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon atom that is attached to two other carbon atoms.

2-Propanol is commonly used as a solvent, disinfectant, and antiseptic. It is often used to make personal care products such as lotions and cosmetics, pharmaceuticalsdetergents, and lacquers.

As a solvent, 2-propanol is effective in dissolving a wide range of substances, including oils, gums, resins, and waxes. It is also commonly used as a cleaning agent, especially in the manufacture of electronic and medical devices, due to its ability to remove oil and other contaminants without damaging delicate components.

2-Propanol, when used as a disinfectant, demonstrates impressive efficacy. It’s capable of eliminating a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This makes it a valuable tool in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics.

Facilities for surface and equipment disinfection.

While 2-Propanol has relatively low toxicity, it’s crucial to handle it with care. Prolonged or repeated exposure can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Additionally, it’s highly flammable, further emphasizing the need for caution.

2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety
2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety

2 propanol structures

There are two common isomers of 2-propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol. They are:

The straight-chain isomer with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2OH, also known as 1-propanol. It is not 2-propanol.

The branched-chain isomer, also known as 2-propanol or isopropyl alcohol, has the chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3. Here are two common ways to draw its structure:


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Both of these structures represent the same molecule, but the second structure is often used to emphasize the hydroxyl (-OH) group.

Chemical Structure and Properties

2 Propanol has a molecular formula of C3H8O and a structural formula of CH3CHOHCH3. It is miscible with water and many organic solvents, making it a valuable ingredient in numerous formulations.

2 propanol formula

The chemical formula of 2-propanol (also known as isopropyl alcohol) is C3H8O.

2 propanol Density

The density of 2-propanol (also known as isopropyl alcohol) at room temperature (25°C or 77°F) is about 0.786 g/cm³ or 786 kg/m³. However, the concentration of 2-propanol can vary slightly depending on temperature and pressure.

Molecular Formula and Structure

The molecular formula of 2 Propanol indicates its composition of three carbon atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. The structural formula illustrates the arrangement of atoms within the molecule, showing the presence of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a secondary carbon atom.

Physical Properties

2 Propanol is a volatile liquid with a boiling point of approximately 82.6°C and a melting point of -89°C. It exhibits a density of around 0.785 g/cm³ at 20°C and is highly soluble in water, ethanol, ether, and acetone.

Chemical Properties

As a secondary alcohol, 2 Propanol undergoes various chemical reactions, including oxidation to form acetone and esterification to produce esters. It also serves as a versatile solvent in organic synthesis and as a disinfectant due to its antimicrobial properties.

Production Methods

2 Propanol can be produced through direct hydration of propylene or indirect hydration of propylene oxide. The direct method involves the catalytic reaction of propylene with water, while the indirect method utilizes propylene oxide as an intermediate.

Direct Hydration of Propylene

In the direct hydration process, propylene and water are reacted over a solid acidic catalyst, typically a zeolite or alumina-based catalyst. This reaction yields 2 Propanol along with minor quantities of other by-products.

Indirect Hydration

The indirect hydration route involves the reaction of propylene oxide with water, followed by the subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate to yield 2 Propanol. This method offers advantages in terms of yield and selectivity but requires additional steps.

Uses and Applications

2 Propanol serves diverse purposes across various industries, owing to its solvency, volatility, and low toxicity. It is widely utilized as a solvent, intermediate, and disinfectant in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, cleaning products, and industrial processes.

Solvent in Various Industries

2 Propanol acts as a solvent in the production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints, coatings, inks, and adhesives. Its ability to dissolve a wide range of substances makes it indispensable in formulating various products.

Intermediate in Chemical Synthesis

In chemical synthesis, 2 Propanol serves as a precursor for the production of acetone, isopropyl acetate, isopropylamine, and other organic compounds. It undergoes numerous reactions to yield valuable intermediates for diverse applications.

Household and Personal Care Products

Due to its antimicrobial properties, 2 Propanol is commonly used in hand sanitizers, disinfectant wipes, and surface cleaners. It effectively kills bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it an essential component of hygiene products.

Health and Safety Considerations

While 2 Propanol offers numerous benefits, it’s crucial to be aware of the health and safety risks it poses. High concentrations of its vapor or liquid can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, emphasizing the need for caution and responsible handling.

2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety
2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety

Exposure Risks

Workers in industries where 2 Propanol is used should be aware of the potential risks associated with inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Proper ventilation, personal protective equipment, and hygiene practices are essential to minimize exposure.

Toxicity and Health Effects

Ingestion of 2 Propanol can lead to gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting, and central nervous system depression. Chronic exposure may result in liver damage, respiratory problems, and dermatitis. If exposure occurs, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately. In the case of ingestion, do not induce vomiting and give nothing by mouth if the person is unconscious. If the person is conscious, give small amounts of water to drink. It is also important to handle and store the chemical safely to prevent accidents and adverse health effects.

Safe Handling and Storage

To ensure safe handling and storage of 2 Propane, it is recommended that it be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area away from heat, sparks, and open flames. Proper labeling, containment, and disposal procedures should be followed to prevent environmental contamination and fire hazards.

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of 2 Propanol depends on factors such as its release into air, water, and soil, as well as its persistence and bioaccumulation potential. While it is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions, it may persist in specific environments and pose risks to aquatic organisms. For example, in aquatic environments, 2 Propanol can accumulate in the tissues of fish and other organisms, potentially leading to adverse effects on the ecosystem.

Degradation and Biodegradability

2 Propanol can be degraded by microbial activity in soil and water, leading to the formation of carbon dioxide and water. However, its biodegradation rate may vary depending on environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, and microbial activity.


Studies have shown that 2 Propanol exhibits low to moderate toxicity to aquatic organisms, with effects varying among species and exposure concentrations. Proper waste management practices are necessary to prevent its release into the environment and minimize ecological risks.

Regulatory Measures

Regulatory agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) have established guidelines and regulations to control the production, use, and disposal of 2 Propanol. These regulations include limits on emissions and discharges, requirements for safe handling and storage, and guidelines for waste management. Compliance with these regulations is essential to ensure environmental protection and human health.

Future Outlook and Emerging Trends

As society’s focus on sustainability and environmental stewardship intensifies, the demand for greener alternatives to 2 Propanol is set to soar. This shift in demand is driving manufacturers to explore innovative production methods and renewable feedstocks, instilling a sense of hope and optimism about the future of isopropanol production.

Sustainable Production Methods

Efforts are underway to develop sustainable production methods for 2 Propanol using renewable resources such as biomass, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Bio-based routes offer the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reliance on fossil fuels, contributing to a more sustainable chemical industry.

Alternatives and Substitutes

Researchers are investigating alternative solvents and disinfectants that offer comparable performance to 2 Propanol but with lower environmental impact and toxicity. Green chemistry principles guide the development of safer and more sustainable alternatives for various applications.

2 propanol CAS

The CAS number for 2-propanol is 67-63-0.

2 propanol uses

2-Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is a common solvent and disinfectant with many uses. Here are some of the most common uses:

  • Disinfectant: 2-Propanol is an effective disinfectant and is commonly used to sanitize surfaces and medical equipment.
  • Solvent: 2-Propanol is an excellent solvent for many substances, including oils, resins, and waxes. It is commonly used as a solvent in the manufacture of paints, coatings, and inks.
  • Antiseptic: 2 Propanol is used as an antiseptic to clean and disinfect wounds, cuts, and scrapes.
  • Cleaning Agent: 2 Propanol is used as a cleaning agent for electronic equipment, lenses, and screens.
  • Fuel: 2-Propanol can be used as fuel in some fuel cells.
  • Deicing Agent: 2-Propanol is used as a deicing agent in the aviation industry to remove ice from aircraft wings.
  • Hand Sanitizers: 2-Propanol is used as an active ingredient in many hand sanitizers.
  • Personal Care Products: 2-Propanol is an ingredient in many personal care products, such as lotions and shampoos.

2-Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is a remarkably versatile compound with a multitude of uses across various industries and applications. Its adaptability and effectiveness in different roles are sure to pique your interest.

2 propanol SDS (Safety Data Sheet) 

Here is the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for 2-propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol:

Section 1: Identification

Product Name: 2-Propanol

Synonyms: isopropyl alcohol, IPA, sec-propyl alcohol

CAS Number: 67-63-0

EC number: 200-661-7

Suggested Uses: Solvents, Cleaning Agents, Disinfectants

Supplier: [insert supplier name, address and phone number]

Section 2: Hazard Identification


Flammable Liquids (Category 2)

Eye irritation (Category 2A)

Specific target organ toxicity – single exposure (Category 3)

Label Material:

Signal word: Danger

Hazard statement:

H225: Highly flammable liquid and vapor.

H319: Causes severe eye irritation.

H336: May cause drowsiness or dizziness.

Precautionary statement:

P210: Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. – No smoking.

P233: Keep the container tightly closed.

P240: Ground/bondholder and receiving equipment.

P241: Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/equipment.

P242: Use only non-sparking tools.

P264: Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P305+P351+P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do – continue washing.

P403+P235: Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool. 

P501: Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.

Section 3: Essay / Information on Material.

Chemical Name: 2-Propanol (isopropyl alcohol)

CAS Number: 67-63-0

Density: 100%

Section 4: First aid measures

Eye contact:

  1. Rinse carefully with water for several minutes.
  2. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do – continue washing.
  3. If eye irritation persists, seek medical advice.

Skin Contact: Wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. Seek medical advice if skin irritation occurs.


  1. Remove to fresh air.
  2. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
  3. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.

Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting. Consult a doctor.


Suitable extinguishing media: water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.

Specific hazards arising from chemicals: Flammable liquids and vapors. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Contact with water or strong acids may release flammable gases.

Special protective equipment and precautions for fire-fighters: Wear full protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus.

Section 6: Accidental release measures.

Personal precautions: Wear personal protective equipment.

Environmental Precautions: Do not discharge into drains or rivers.

Methods for containment and cleaning up: Contain the spill and absorb it with inert material. Then, transfer the material to a suitable container for disposal.

Section 7: Handling and Storage


  1. Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and clothing.
  2. Use only in areas with good ventilation.
  3. Keep away from heat, sparks, and flames.

Storage: Keep the container tightly closed and in a cool, well-ventilated place. Keep away from heat, sparks, and flames.

Section 8: Exposure controls / personal protection

Exposure Limits:

Occupational exposure.

2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety
2 propanol: structures, formula, density, Cas, uses, sds, safety

2-propanol vs isopropanol

2 Propanol and isopropanol are two names for the same chemical compound, which has the molecular formula C3H8O and the structural formula CH3CH(OH)CH3. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a strong odor and slightly bitter taste.

The name “2-propanol” indicates that the hydroxyl (-OH) group is attached to the second carbon atom of the molecule. In contrast, the name “isopropanol” refers to the fact that the molecule is a type of propanol branch structure.

Isopropanol is a more commonly used name for this chemical compound, especially in North America, while 2-propanol is more commonly used in Europe and Asia.

Both names are acceptable, and the two terms can be used interchangeably to refer to the same substance. Isopropanol/2-propanol is widely used as a solvent, disinfectant, and antifreeze and is commonly found in rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizers, and household cleaning products.

2 propanol molar mass

The molar mass of 2-propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is about 60.1 grams per mole (g/mol).

2 propanol molecular weight

2-Propanol (also known as isopropyl alcohol or IPA) has a molecular weight of about 60.1 g/mol.

It can be calculated by adding the atomic weights of the elements to its chemical formula, which is C3H8O:

Carbon (C): 3 atoms x 12.01 g/mol = 36.03 g/mol

Hydrogen (H): 8 atoms x 1.01 g/mol = 8.08 g/mol

Oxygen (O): 1 atom x 16.00 g/mol = 16.00 g/mol

Total molecular weight = 36.03 g/mol + 8.08 g/mol + 16.00 g/mol = 60.1 g/mol.

2- propanol vs 1- propanol

2-Propanol and 1-Propanol are two different types of alcohols that have similar chemical structures but differ in the position of the hydroxyl (-OH) group in the carbon chain.

1-Propanol, also known as n-propanol or propane-1-ol, has a hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon atom of the propane molecule. Its molecular formula is C3H8O, and it is a primary alcohol.

2 Propanol, also known as isopropanol or propane-2-ol, has a hydroxyl group attached to the second carbon atom of the propane molecule. Its molecular formula is C3H8O, and it is a secondary alcohol.

The physical and chemical properties of 1-propanol and 2-propanol differ due to their different molecular structures. For example, 2-propanol has a lower boiling point than 1-propanol, which makes it more volatile and evaporates faster. 2-Propanol is increasingly used as a solvent and disinfectant due to its strong ability to dissolve substances and its excellent antimicrobial activity.

In summary, both 1-propanol and 2-propanol are alcohols with similar chemical formulas, with distinct physical and chemical properties as a result of their different positions of the hydroxyl group in the carbon chain.

2 propanol condensed structural formula

The condensed structural formula of 2-propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is:


This formula shows the arrangement of atoms in molecules, with carbon atoms represented by the symbol “C” and hydrogen atoms by “H.” The “OH” group represents the hydroxyl group, which is characteristic of alcohols.


2-Methyl-2-propanol, also known as tert-butyl alcohol or T-butanol, is a colorless, flammable liquid with a camphor-like odor. Its molecular formula is C4H10O, and its molar mass is 74.12 g/mol.

It is commonly used as a solvent for various organic compounds, in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and other chemicals, as a fuel additive, and as an ingredient in paints and coatings.

Like other alcohols, it can be used as a disinfectant but is less effective than isopropyl alcohol or ethanol due to its higher boiling point and slower evaporation rate. It is essential to handle 2-methyl-2-propanol with care, as it is flammable and can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities.

2-propanol synonyms

2-Propanol is also known as rubbing alcohol, propan-2-ol (IUPAC name), isopropyl alcohol, IPA, propyl alcohol, sec-propyl alcohol, S-propanol, IPOH, i-PROH, dimethyl carbinol, and isopropanol.

2 propanol safety

2 Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is a common solvent used in many industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and cleaning products. It can be dangerous if not used properly, so safety precautions when handling it are essential.

Here are some safety tips for handling 2-propanol – 

Flammability: 2 Propanol is highly flammable, so it should be kept away from heat sources and open flames. It should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area away from direct sunlight.

Toxicity: 2-Propanol can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. It can cause dizziness, headache, nausea, and even shortness of breath. Therefore, it is essential to use it in a well-ventilated area and wear protective gear such as gloves, goggles, and a respirator if necessary.

Skin Contact: 2-Propanol can irritate the skin and cause dryness, cracking, and dermatitis. It is essential to wash your hands thoroughly after handling and avoid prolonged skin contact.

Ingestion: 2 Propanol should never be ingested. It can cause severe harm or even death if ingested, so it should be kept out of reach of children and pets.

Spills: If spills occur, they should be cleaned up immediately using an absorbent material such as sand or kitty litter. Do not use water to clean the vents, as this may spread the liquid and increase the risk of fire.

In summary, 2 propanol may be safe to use if adequately handled with the necessary precautions. Always follow product label directions and wear appropriate protective gear to avoid any potential hazards.


2 Propanol plays a vital role in numerous industries as a solvent, intermediate, and disinfectant. While offering valuable properties and versatility, it is essential to address its health, safety, and environmental considerations. Continued research and innovation are crucial for developing sustainable practices and alternatives to meet the evolving needs of society.

  1. Is 2 Propanol the same as rubbing alcohol?

    Yes, 2 Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is commonly used as rubbing alcohol for disinfection and sanitation purposes.

  2. Can 2 Propanol be used for cleaning electronics?

    Yes, 2 Propanol is often used for cleaning electronic components and devices due to its ability to dissolve oils and remove residues without leaving behind residue.

  3. Is 2 Propanol safe to use on the skin?

    While 2 Propanol can be used as a disinfectant on the skin, prolonged or repeated exposure may cause irritation or dryness. It is recommended to use it in moderation and follow proper safety precautions.

  4. What precautions should be taken when handling 2 Propanol?

    When handling 2 Propanol, it is essential to wear appropriate personal protective equipment, ensure adequate ventilation, and avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Additionally, it should be stored in a well-ventilated area away from heat and ignition sources.

  5. Is 2 Propanol environmentally friendly?

    While 2 Propanol is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions, it can pose risks to aquatic organisms if released into the environment in large quantities. Sustainable production methods and proper waste management practices are essential to mitigate its environmental impact.

Faisal Ahmed

Hey! I'm Faisal Ahmed, the author of Tips Degree. I have a strong desire to educate people about education, science and technology, finance, and other trending topics through my content that's easy to understand. These contents created by me have helped many trainees around the world grow their careers. In my spare time, I love to swim and watch movies. I'm available on social media sites like Facebook, Pinterest, Medium, Flickr, etc.

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